Friday, June 28, 2013

Bookmark all open browser tabs at once


Right-click on a tab and select "Bookmark all tabs" or hit Ctrl+Shift+D.


Just like in Chrome, right-click on a tab and select "Bookmark All Tabs" or hit Ctrl+Shift+D.

Internet Explorer

Click on the "View favorites" icon, then the "Add favorites" drop-down menu. Select "Add current tabs to favorites." You can save a few steps by hitting Alt+Z, then clicking on "Add current tabs to favorites."

This is how to bookmark all your open tabs with just a couple of mouse clicks or with keyboard shortcuts.

Thursday, June 13, 2013

Windows XP / Server 2003 Boot Error NTOSKRNL.EXE Is Missing Or Corrupt

Every once in while when you reboot a workstation or server you'll get the famous NTOSKRNL.EXE is Missing or Corrupt error  Windows NT could not start because the following file is missing or corrupt: 


It's fairly straight forward to resolve this problem. Start by booting your machine from the install media (CD/DVD or USB Drive) when prompted follow these steps :

- Boot to the recovery console (

- Select your Windows installation that you want to recover

- When prompted provide the local administrator password

- Once you are into the recovery console you will probably be sitting at a C:\WINDOWS prompt

- Change the directory to the i386 folder on your CD / DVD drive (If you only have one partition it will most likely be D:\)

- Copy the following files to the C:\ drive

        copy ntldr C:
        copy C:

- Change your source directory back to C:\Windows

- Next you will need to fix your boot record

       fixboot C:

- Most likely you will also have to fix the boot .ini using the bootcfg command

       bootcfg /rebuild

- Add the required Windows installation to your boot list

- Add the Load Identifier (Custom description)

- Add the OS Load Options (/fastdetect)

- Type exit to reboot the machine

Your machine should now be recovered from the NTOSKRNL.exe is Missing or Corrupt" error.

Monday, June 10, 2013


DOS Boot up Sequence

IO.SYS – A binary file that provides basic input/output interface between the ROM BIOS and the Hardware
MSDOS.SYS – A binary file considered to be the core of the DOS operating system
CONFIG.SYS – A text file used to load drivers and memory managers and also use to configure the system to the user’s needs
COMMAND.COM – DOS user interface loads the command prompt which interprets DOS commands
AUTOEXEC.BAT – A text file that contains setting up display settings, environment variables and routines

Win 9X Boot up Sequence

IO.SYS - I/O files use to communicate with the BIOS
MSDOS.SYS - Loads OS into memory (Also use to configure boot files in windows 9x)
SYSTEM.DAT and USER.DAT - system and user settings (REGEDIT)
CONFIG.SYS - loads device drivers for backwards compatibility
AUTOEXEC.BAT - sets system environment use for backwards compatibility
WIN.COM - Initiates the Windows 9x protected load phase
SYSTEM.INI - use to configure 16-bit windows drivers and critical files
WIN.INI- sets 16-bit windows environment
VxD - loads windows virtual device drivers

Windows 2000/XP Key Boot Files

– Found in the MBR this file boots up the Windows 2K/XP operating system
BOOT.INI - is text file that lists the available OS found and tells the NTLDR where to find boot partition
BOOTSECT.DOS – Locates the IO.SYS file so you can start another OS in a dual boot environment
NTDETECT.COM – Loads into protected mode and detects the installed hardware on your system
NTBOOTDD.SYS - On a system with a SCSI boot device, this file is used to recognize and load the SCSI boot partition.
NTOSKRNL.EXE - Windows 2000 Core Files
WIN.COM - Windows 2K/XP command file
HAL.DLL - Hardware Abstraction layer of Windows 2K/XP

Windows Vista/7 Key Boot Files

– Found in the MBR this file boots up the Windows operating system
BCD (Boot Configuration Data) - is text file that lists the available OS found and tells the BOOTMGR where to find boot partition
WINLOAD.EXE - Loads the Windows Interface
NTOSKRNL.EXE - Windows Vista/7 Core Files
WIN.COM - Windows Vista/7 command file
HAL.DLL - Hardware Abstraction layer of Windows Vista/7